1. GLUCONO – DELTA – LACTONE
GDL is white crystalline powder, almost odourless.
It has a slightly sweet taste, then bitter, finally sour.
The melting point of GDL is 150 to 154℃ (decomposition).
It is freely soluble in water (60.00 gms per ml of water)
Sparingly soluble in ethyl alcohol (1.00 gms / 100 ml of water), almost insoluble in ether.
It can be hydrolysed into the balanced solution of GDL and Gluconic acid in aqueous solution.
The pH value of formulated 1.00% solution is 3.50 and will reduce gradually to 2.50
This product is a multifunctional food additive and mainly used as protein coagulant, sour agent, swelling agent, preservative, flavouring agent, chelating agent, colour retention agent etc.
It is widely used in food, commodity chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics and resin modifying, electroplating, polishing, metal cleaning, organic synthesis and other aspects.
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2 (CHOH) 4COOH. It is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid and other name is Dextronic Acid.
In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the Gluconate ion. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "Gluconates". Gluconic acid, Gluconate salts, and Gluconate esters occur widely in nature because such species arise from the oxidation of Glucose. Some drugs are injected in the form of Gluconates.
Structure and Uses: The chemical structure of gluconic acid consists of a six-carbon chain with five hydroxyl groups terminating in a carboxylic acid group. In aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic ester glucono delta-lactone.
Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruits, Honey, Kombucha tea and Wine. As a food additive it is an acidity regulator. It is also used in cleaning products where it dissolves mineral deposits especially in alkaline solution.
The Gluconate anion Chelates Ca2+, Fe2+, Al3+ and other metals. In 1929 Horace Terhune Herric developed a process for producing the salt by fermentation.
Calcium Gluconate, in the form of a gel, is used to treat burns from Hydrofluoric Acid Calcium Gluconate injections may be used for more severe cases to avoid necrosis of deep tissues.
Quinine Gluconate is a salt between gluconic acid and quinine, which is used for intramuscular injection in the treatment of malaria.
Zinc Gluconate injections are used to neuter male dogs.
Iron Gluconate injections have been proposed in the past to treat anemia.
Gluconic acid is a multifunction carbonic acid. Due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, it is used extensively in various applications.
It can be obtained by chemical synthesis, on account of its superior selectively, however microbial production is preferred. A series of microorganisms such as Aspergillus and Penicillin, many bacteria such as Gluconobacter spec, Pseudomonas, Phytomonas, Achromobacter, Klebsiella, Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter methanolicus have already been indicated as being usable for such microbial production of gluconic acid.
It has also been known for some times that yeast like fungus cultures, such as Aureobasidium pullulans can form small amount of gluconic acid.
For microbial production of gluconic acid, predominantly, Aspergillus Niger or Gluconobacter suboxidans have been applied for the industrial production of gluconic acid, though it is known that Aspergillus niger is difficult to handle as it can cause clogging and it is unsuitable for continuous production, as cell growth and gluconic formation would not be possible simultaneously.
On the other hand, Gluconobacter has been found to produce a relatively large quantity of keto acids during production, which keto acids can complicate processing and isolation of the pure gluconic acid.
3.CALCIUM GLUCONATEHuman pharmaceutical industry
Calcium is an essential element of tissue and blood which contains approximately 10 milligrams per 100 milliliters. The average daily requirement of calcium is 500milligrams but larger amounts are necessary during periods of growth
Frequently calcium gluconate is added to food for its natrienal/health value e.g in baby food juice, biscuits, health foods etc, Another use is the incorporation of calcium gluconate in order to increase the speed of reaction,although calcium gluconate is more expensive than some other calcium salts it has the preference for quality products. It does not give the pudding a sour paste since it is natural.Veterinary Pharmaceutical Industry
Here Calcium gluconate is used for the treatment of hypocalcaemia in cases of milk fever and gross tetany. Calcium gluconate is the product of choice for such treatment, because it has no irritating effects on the body tissue.
Potasium gluconate is administered in all cases of potassium deficiency and when there is danger of potassium depletion, potassium dipletion may be caused by diabetic acidosis, diarrhea, vomiting etc. ,potassium chloride is also used but potassium gluconate is preferred because of its slightly mild saline taste.
- Detergent in bottle washing
- Metallurgy (alkaline derusting)
- Additive in cement
- Textile (iron deposits prevention)
- In Paper industry
6.MANGANESE GLUCONATEPharma/Healthy Food
Manganese gluconate can be readly formulated into tablets for the treatment of hypomanganism, should this condition exist. However it is primarily added to vitamin mineral dietary preparation, to supplement normal intake should it be inadequate.Feed Stuffs
Manganesee gluconate maybe added to animals feed to assure adequate manganese ions